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Elsewhere, the shift to farming has been much slower.
However, in Amazonia, proto-agricultural villages are beginning to appear, and pottery is spreading throughout the region.
Next map, South America in 1789The peoples of the New World have, by this date, domesticated a much greater range of plants than have those of the Old; however, only in a few areas have food crops become an important part of the economy.
Most of South America is still inhabited by groups of hunter-gatherers.
These developments have been accompanied by the appearance of pottery, the invention of loom weaving and the beginnings of a more class-based society. Here, large temple-mounds are starting to be built, evidence for the development of a priestly elite able to control the labour of the rest of the population.
This is also apparent in the irrigation systems now being developed.
In the lowlands of the Atlantic coast, communities are choosing to use refuse middens which have built up over hundreds of years as habitation mounds, as well as for ritual platforms.
Next map, South America in 1000 BCEOver recent centuries the trade networks linking the high Andes and the coastal plains of Peru have been expanding.
This is creating a single cultural sphere, and, together with increases in agricultural productivity, is moving it rapidly towards full urban civilization.
In the Amazon basin communities of Arawak-speaking peoples continue to disperse over an ever larger area.
The fact that these settlements are small, coupled with the rapid evolution of multiple Arawak dialects at this period, suggests that the dispersal is carried out by small groups which, once settled in a particular location, soon send out off-shoots to establish new colonies.