100 tom dating
The participle "singing" is in the function of an attribute in the second and third examples. After the linking verb BE, the participle is used a predicative adjective (in the predicative complement). Because of Nina having to leave at dawn, we helped her to pack her suitcases beforehand.
The gerund "singing" is in the function of a noun (the subject; predicative noun; direct object). The gerund after the linking verb BE is used as a predicative nominal (in the predicative complement). The gerund in the function of direct object is used after many notional verbs. Compare these participle noun and gerund noun combinations. In such combinations, the participle is used as an attribute and usually expresses continuous nature of the action (the swimming boy = the boy who is swimming). He was angry at them telling him what to do and what not to do.
Tom was scared out of his wits and began begging for his life. I have something far worse in mind.” With that, the husband dragged Tom off into the darkness.
He swore up and down that he didn’t know Eleanor was married, but the husband didn’t believe him. Cowering in the car, Eleanor couldn’t see what was happening, but she was forced to listen to Tom’s blood-curdling screams as they pierced the dark Tennessee night.
But in this material we want to show the differences in the use of the present participle and the gerund, so we use the terms "gerund" and "present participle" here. Students often think that the ing-form is a present participle in such sentences because they translate the ing-form with the help of a Russian adverbial participle. (Inanimate nouns are generally not used in the possessive case.) The pronouns "its" (in the singular) and "their" (in the plural) are used as substitutes for inanimate nouns before gerunds in this construction.
This material is intended mostly for intermediate and advanced learners of English.
The present participle and the gerund are formed from the verb by adding "ing", but their functions are different. She resented their coming to her birthday party without invitation.
The next morning, the police drove up to the crime scene and made a horrifying discovery.
Hanging from the branches of a tree was a pile of human skin.
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The husband had then draped Tom’s hide over a branch and left him for dead.