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The purpose of a Greek temple was usually to house a cult statue or emblem.
Religion did not require people to gather inside the temple to worship, and their temples were primarily monuments to the gods.
Located at the southernmost tip of the Attica peninsula in Greece, the Temple of Poseidon at Sounion is surrounded on three sides by the sea. 440 BC, over the ruins of a temple dating from the Archaic Period.
These webpages present every saying of the Gospel of Thomas alongside scholarly commentary, parallel references in other literature, comments from visitors, the original Greek and Coptic, and multiple translations to provide you with deeper insight into the meaning of the Gospel of Thomas.
This means, of course, that these sayings are not dependent upon their synoptic counterparts, but rather derive from a parallel and separate tradition. Thom.'s choice of genre and the absence of the gospels' narrative material in the text. The earliest possible date would be in the middle of the 1st century, when sayings collections such as the Synoptic Sayings Gospel Q first began to be compiled. is a sayings collection based on an autonomous tradition, and not a gospel harmony conflated from the NT, then a date of composition in, say, the last decades of the 1st century would be more likely than a mid-to-late-2d-century date.
But such indirect attestations must be treated with care, since they might refer to the Infancy Gospel of Thomas. That is, Thomas' author/editor, in taking up the synoptic version, would have inherited all of the accumulated tradition-historical baggage owned by the synoptic text, and then added to it his or her own redactional twist. Rather than reflecting the same tradition-historical development that stands behind their synoptic counterparts, these Thomas sayings seem to be the product of a tradition-history which, though exhibiting the same tendencies operative within the synoptic tradition, is in its own specific details quite unique. is dependent on the Synoptics not only must explain the differences in wording and order, but also give a reason for Gos. erased the passion narratives because Gnosticism was concerned solely with a redeeming message contained in words of revelation (Haenchen 1961: 11) is simply not convincing, since the Apocryphon of James (NHC I, 2), the Second treatise of the Great Seth (NHC VII, 2), and the Apocalypse of Peter (NHC VII, 3) all indicate that sayings of and stories about the death and resurrection of Jesus were reinterpreted by various gnostic groups. Determining a plausible date of composition is speculative and depends on a delicate weighing of critical judgments about the history of the transmission of the sayings-of-Jesus tradition and the process of the formation of the written gospel texts.
Ron Cameron comments on the textual integrity of Thomas (The Anchor Bible Dictionary, v. 535): Substantial differences do exist between the Greek fragments and the Coptic text. The existence of three different copies of the Greek text of Gos. does give evidence of rather frequent copying of this gospel in the 3d century. The presence of inner-Coptic errors in the sole surviving translation, moreover, suggests that our present Gos. is not the first Coptic transcription made from the Greek. Together these factors suggest a date for Thomas in the vicinity of 70-80 C. As for its provenance, while it is possible, even likely, that an early version of this collection associated with James circulated in the environs of Jerusalem, the Gospel of Thomas in more or less its present state comes from eastern Syria, where the popularity of the apostle Thomas (Judas Didymos Thomas) is well attested. It celebrated his memory by preserving sayings in his name that sanctioned the formation of a distinctive community.
These are best explained as variants resulting from the circulation of more than one Greek edition of Gos. According to the critical edition of the Greek text by Attridge (in Layton 1989: 99), however, even though these copies do not come from a single ms, the fragmentary state of the papyri does not permit one to determine whether any of the mss "was copied from one another, whether they derive independently from a single archetype, or whether they represent distinct recensions." It is clear, nevertheless, that Gos. The ms tradition indicates that this gospel was appropriated again and again in the generations following its composition. The gospel locates its group's position within the Christian tradition as an independent Jesus movement, which persisted over the course of several generations of social history without becoming an apocalyptic or kerygmatic sect.
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The temple is unusual in that it has examples of all three of the classical orders used in ancient Greek architecture.