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While Avot asserts that 13 is the age of adult responsibility, Niddah 5:6 rules that the vows of a girl who is 12 and one day are deemed valid, as are the vows of a boy who is 13 and one day.
Similarly, after their respective 12 birthdays, girls and boys must fast on Yom Kippur (Yoma 85).
The ceremony was held at a later age – 16 or 17 – on the grounds that before that age a young person cannot really understand the implications of the rituals. S., confirmation has been adopted as a ceremony additional to bar mitzvah which is celebrated in a more traditional manner.
The main intention of confirmation was to prolong the period of a child's Jewish education, and as such it is usually a ceremony with a "class" of young people being confirmed at the same time. The confirmands recite various sections from Scriptures and publicly declare their devotion to Judaism.
[Zvi Kaplan] 15a), in reference to the time a girl becomes subject to the obligations of Jewish law incumbent on adults.
It is not until the 19 century that indications of ceremony or public recognition come from Italy, Eastern and Western Europe, Egypt, and Baghdad.
These acknowledgements of female religious adulthood include a private blessing, a father's aliyah to the Torah, a rabbi's sermon and/or a girl's public examination on Judaic matters.
Bat mitzvah as a female ceremony equivalent or identical to the male bar mitzvah is not found until the middle of the 20 The earliest source, from Verona on Passover 1844, refers to an iniziazione religiosa delle fanciulle and la maggiorita delle fanciulle.
This reference to entrance "into minyan" was used for boys and girls.
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While the occasion of becoming bar/bat mitzvah was thus formalized only in later times, it is obvious from various sources that the status of obligation for boys of 13 was assumed in early times. Simeon (second century ), a father was responsible for the deeds of his son until the age of 13. Higger 1937) alludes to the fact that in Jerusalem during the period of the Second Temple, it was customary for the sages to bless a child who had succeeded in completing his first fast day at 12 or 13. This is the first public demonstration of his new role as a full member of the community and, in modern times, it is to this occasion that the term bar mitzvah usually refers. In Western Europe, the occasion took on a more ceremonial importance, and it was customary for the bar mitzvah boy to be called up to the Torah to read the maftir portions and the haftarah on the first Sabbath after his birthday. According to an old Ashkenazi custom in Lithuania, Ereẓ Israel, etc., the boy recited the maftir on the Sabbath just before becoming fully 13, and immediately upon coming of age he received an ordinary aliyah.